Today we will look at how we can use cell value in a formula in Google Sheets. The general idea revolves around cell references, but we will go the extra mile to discuss all types of it.

Let’s get started.

## Using Cell Value in a Formula in Google Sheets

### 1. Using Regular Reference for Cell Value in a Formula in Google Sheets

The most common way to use a cell’s value in a formula in Google Sheets is through **cell references**. Any spreadsheet user worth their salt knows what **cell references** are. But what can be slightly complex to understand are the different types of cell references that are available and how to efficiently use them.

Here we have a simple dataset of random integers that we are going to average in a different cell.

We will be using the **AVERAGE** function to create a formula by referencing the cell values in the integer column.

The **AVERAGE function** takes a range of values, and our integer range starts from cell** B3**, this is the cell reference. So we use that in the formula.

The final cell of the range of integers is cell** B12**. The **colon (:)** in between the cell references denotes the range** B3 to B12**. Our formula:

`=AVERAGE(B3:B12)`

In layman’s terms: We have averaged the cell values from **B3 to B12** using the **AVERAGE** formula.

This is something most spreadsheet users already know. So, what happens when we have multiple sources of values? Or when we want to apply our formula to entire rows and columns?

In such cases, we need to * lock* our cell references to make these complex conditions work.

#### Absolute Cell Reference

Now, if we want to multiply our integers by, let’s say, **10**, we have to make sure that all the results are **visible** and all the integers are multiplied by the value in cell **D3**.

The formula:

`=B3*$D$3`

The value of cell **D3** is locked with **absolutes ($)** so that as we move the formula down the Result column with the fill handle, the values of the Integer column change but the **10** in **D3** doesn’t.

#### Mixed Cell Reference

All cells have a **Column Reference** (letters: A, B, C…) and a **Row Reference** (numbers: 1, 2, 3…), and we can lock them separately. Doing so, we get something called **Mixed Cell Reference**.

For this example, we have added a few more columns of data.

We will use the same AVERAGE function, but for the first example, we will average by row. And to show mixed cell reference, we will lock the column reference only.

`=AVERAGE($B3:$D3)`

So if we use the fill handle horizontally, the column value won’t increase keeping the formula as it is. If we use the fill handle vertically, the column value again won’t change but the row values will.

Now, the opposite effect happens when we lock the row number of our cell reference. Let’s say we want to find the average by columns this time. Our formula:

`=AVERAGE(B$3:B$12)`

Now, if we use the fill handle horizontally, the column number is free to change. But if we use the fill handle vertically, the row number remains unchanged.

For an in-depth breakdown of everything we have discussed so far, follow our **Lock Cell Reference in Google Sheets** article.

The idea is when inputting or highlighting a cell reference, pressing the **F4** key will transform the current cell reference into different types.

**Read More: Find Cell Reference in Google Sheets (2 Ways)**

### 2. Dynamically Reference Cell Value in a Formula in Google Sheets (INDIRECT Function)

The word dynamic implies that this will be somewhat of an advanced method. As such, we will be using one of Google Sheets’ heavy-hitting functions, the INDIRECT function to use cell value in a formula. As a function, **INDIRECT** has amazing uses but it is also very easy to get wrong.

It is better shown with an example. The core of using INDIRECT is when we are using it to reference a cell from another cell (dynamically).

Here, we have made some modifications to our previous dataset. We have added the **Start Cell** and **End Cell** targets. We will use these targets to dynamically reference the start and the end of the range for our average. Meaning, the values of these cells are * indirectly *referenced.

Now, if we want to find the average value from cell **B3 to C8** from the **Integers** table, we simply designate the Start Cell as **B3** and End Cell as **C8** for our formula:

`=AVERAGE(INDIRECT(C14&":"&C16))`

Not only for the AVERAGE function but INDIRECT can also be used to passively reference *any cell for any function*, for both the *same or different worksheets*.

To see these examples of the in-depth usage of INDIRECT, please see our **Dynamic Cell Reference in Google Sheets** article.

**Read More: Relative Cell Reference in Google Sheets**

## Final Words

That concludes all the general ways we can use cell value in a formula in Google Sheets. Note that we go much more in-depth on other articles dedicated to each method mentioned here. You can find the links to those articles at the end of each method.

Feel free to leave any queries or advice you might have for us in the comments section.

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